Productivity

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I’m back with another “Reducing the Friction” blog post, this time to talk about training an e-mail spam filter. As you may recall if you read one of the earlier posts (may I suggest this one and this one?), I use the phrase “reducing the friction” to talk about streamlining and simplifying commonly-performed tasks so as to allow you to improve your own personal efficiency and/or adopt more efficient habits or workflows.

I recently moved my e-mail services off Google and onto Fastmail. (I described the reasons why I made this move in this post.) Fastmail has been great—I find their e-mail service to be much faster than what I was seeing with Google. The one drawback, though, has been an increase in spam. Not a huge increase, mind you, but enough to notice. Fastmail recommends that you help train your personal spam filter by moving messages into a folder you designate, and then telling their systems to consider everything in that folder to be spam. While that’s not hard, it’s also not very streamlined, so I took up the task of making it even easier and faster.

(Note that, as a Mac user, most of my tips focus on Mac applications. If you’re a user of another platform, I do apologize—but I can only speak about what I use myself.)

To help make this easier, I came up with this bit of AppleScript:

(Click here if you don’t see a code block above this paragraph.)

To make this work on your system, all you need to do is just change the two property declarations at the top. Set them to the correct values for your system.

As you can tell by the comments in the code, this script was designed to be run from within Apple’s Mail app itself. To make that easy, I use a fantastic tool called FastScripts (highly recommended!). Using FastScripts, I can easily designate an application-specific shortcut key (I use Ctrl-Cmd-S) to invoke the script from within Apple Mail. Boom! Just like that, you now have a super-easy way to both help speed up processing your e-mail as well as helping train your personal spam filter. (Note: if you are also a FastMail customer, refer to the FastMail help screens while logged in to get more details on marking a folder for spam learning.)

I hope this helps someone out there!

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In this post I’m going to show you how to make JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) output more readable using a BBEdit Text Filter. This post comes out of some recent work I’ve done in learning how to interact with various REST APIs. My initial REST API explorations have focused on the NVP/NSX API, but I plan to soon expand my explorations to include other APIs, like OpenStack.

<aside>You might be wondering why I’m exploring REST APIs and stuff like JSON. I believe that having a better understanding of the APIs these products use will help drive a deeper and more complete understanding of the underlying products. I could be wrong…time will tell.</aside>

BBEdit Text Filters, as you may already know, simply take the current text (or selected text) in BBEdit, do something to it, and then output the result. The “do something to it” is, of course, the magic. You can, for example—and this something that I do—use the MultiMarkdown command-line executable to transform a (Multi)Markdown document in BBEdit to HTML. All that is required is to place the script (or a link to the script) in the ~/Library/Application Support/BBEdit/Text Filters directory. The script just needs to accept input on STDIN, transform it in whatever way you want, and spit out the results on STDOUT. BBEdit does the rest.

In this case, you’re going to use an extremely simple Bash shell script containing a single Python command to transform JSON-serialized output into a more human-readable format.

First, let’s take a look at some JSON-serialized output. Here’s the output from an API call to NVP/NSX to list the logical switches:

(To view the information if the code block isn’t available, click here.)

It is human-readable, but just barely. How can we make this a bit easier for humans to read and parse? Well, it turns out that OS X (and probably most recent flavors of Linux) come with a version of Python pre-installed, and the pre-installed version of Python comes with the ability to “prettify” (make more human readable) JSON text. (In the case of OS X 10.8 “Mountain Lion”, the pre-installed version of Python is version 2.7.2.) With grateful thanks to the folks on Twitter who introduced me to this trick, the command you would use in this instance is as follows:

python -m json.tool

Very simple, right? To turn this into a BBEdit Text Filter, we need only wrap this into a very simple shell script, such as this:

(If you aren’t able to see the code block above, please click here.)

Place this script (or a link to this script) in the ~/Library/Application Support/BBEdit/Text Filters directory, restart BBEdit, and you should be good to go. Now you can copy and paste the output from an API call like the output above, run it through this text filter, and get output that looks like this:

(Click here if the code block above isn’t visible.)

Given that I’m new to a lot of this stuff, I’m sure that I have probably overlooked something along the way. There might be better and/or more efficient ways of handling this, or better tools to use. If you have any suggestions on how to improve any of this—or just suggestions on how I might do better in my API explorations—feel free to speak out in the comments below.

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A few weeks ago I published a Reducing the Friction blog post centered on helping to streamline the tasks involved in processing e-mail. (Recall that there is a distinction between managing e-mail and processing e-mail.) In this Reducing the Friction post, I’d like to revisit the idea of processing e-mail with a slightly different take: using text expanders to streamline composing and replying to e-mail messages.

As much as we all love to bash e-mail as a productivity killer, it has become something of a necessary evil in most professional environments. As such, we’re better off (in my opinion) reducing the time and effort it takes to deal with this necessary evil so that we can get on to bigger and better things. The use of text expanders—tools like TextExpander, Typinator, TypeIt4Me, and others—can actually help in a number of ways.

Here are a few ways that I use a text expander tool (my choice is Typinator) to help in composing and replying to e-mail messages:

  • There are common phrases that I find myself using on a regular basis, such as “Thanks for your message” or “Sorry for the delay in responding.” Rather than typing these phrases out every single time I use them, I set up a text expansion shortcut to type them for me. So, I just type the three or four character shortcut, and Typinator automatically substitutes the full phrase. Most of the text expansion utilities also have the ability to make these expansions case-sensitive (I know Typinator does), which allows you to substitute capitalized or non-capitalized versions of the phrase.

  • I prefer to use inline or bottom posting in my e-mail replies (instead of the default top posting), so that the entire thread is easily readable from top (oldest) to bottom (newest). However, this frequently throws people off, so I have some “markers” that I use to help readers navigate. These are phrases like “See my reply below” or “My replies are inline, marked with [SL]” (or similar). Rather than typing these phrases manually, I have my text expansion utility do it for me.

  • While many e-mail clients support signatures, sometimes you might want to use a different signature than the “default” signature you have configured. I prefer to use a text expansion shortcut to supply the signature, which allows me to choose which signature to use on a message-by-message basis. For me, this works better than having the e-mail client automatically tack a signature on the message. (You could just as easily have your e-mail client use a default signature, but change it manually using a text expansion shortcut when desired.)

These are just three examples; I’m sure that you can probably come up with more. In fact, I’d love to see what sorts of additional ideas readers might have. Feel free to add your ideas and thoughts in the comments below. Courteous comments are always welcome!

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E-mail is the bane of efficiency for a lot of professionals, especially IT professionals. In this Reducing the Friction post, I’d like to share a few tips or tricks that might help making processing e-mail a bit easier.

Remember that I like to talk about processing e-mail instead of managing e-mail. There is a subtle distinction there—one (processing) implies a task that is to be performed, perhaps on a regular basis; the other (managing) implies an ongoing process that doesn’t end. (Which one would you rather do?)

In presentations that I’ve given on personal efficiency, I provided a set of four steps for processing e-mail. These aren’t necessarily my invention; I’ve culled them together from a variety of sources online and in print. Here they are:

  1. If a message contains a task that you can do in under 2 minutes (replying to the message, doing whatever task is in the message, etc.), then just go ahead and do it.

  2. If the task found in the message takes more than 2 minutes, put it into your trusted system. (Personally, I use OmniFocus, but use whatever system makes sense to you.)

  3. If, after performing the task or putting it into your trusted system, you think you need the information in the message, then archive the message according to whatever system you prefer.

  4. Finally, if after performing the task or putting it into your trusted system you don’t need the message, then delete it.

In looking at these steps, it occurs to me that there are 2 places where we can “reduce the friction,” i.e., make repetitive tasks easier, and that’s in steps #2 and #3. In this post, I’m going to focus on #3. I’ll try to address #2 in a future post.

Obviously, how we tackle automating the task of filing messages away according to some system will depend on the system we use. I use a system whereby all messages are filed away by year. All the messages in 2012 get archived into a 2012 folder (or mailbox), messages from 2013 are filed into a 2013 mailbox, etc. To help simplify this process, I wrote an AppleScript that takes the selected messages and moves them to a folder. Here’s the script (if you don’t see the script below, click here):

For my particular system, I change the value of the variable theMailbox every year to correspond to a mailbox for that year (i.e., 2011, 2012, 2013). Then, to further streamline the process, I bound the AppleScript to a Mail.app-specific keyboard shortcut using FastScripts, as I outlined in an earlier Reducing the Friction blog post on using keyboard shortcuts. Now, the process of filing a message into this year’s archive folder is a simple keyboard shortcut away. Super easy!

If you use a system where you file to a few different folders, you could use multiple versions of this script each pointing to a different folder. If you use lots of different folders/mailboxes…then this script probably won’t help you. (Sorry.)

I think part of the reason my people use lots of different folders if that they use the folders as a way of categorizing messages—each folder represents a particular category, project, person, group, customer, etc. I found an alternate way of handling this categorization process by using a tool called MailTags. MailTags is an extremely powerful add-in to Mail.app that allows you to assign keywords, projects, due dates, notes, etc., to mail messages. Further, it allows you to build Smart Mailboxes (saved searches) on any of these properties as well. If you use Mail.app, I highly recommend MailTags.

As I said, I archive all messages for a given year into a single mailbox. To help with the categorization of messages (or to help provide additional context to every message), I assign at least one keyword to every message. Where applicable, I also assign a project. You can create rules in Mail.app that will automatically assign keywords and/or projects, and I highly recommend that. However, you’ll also want to make it very easy to assign keywords manually. Fortunately, MailTags supports AppleScript, so I was able to write a quick script (click here if you can’t see it below) to do that:

If you want to assign multiple keywords, just modify the script to change the value of assignedKeywords to something like this:

{"Keyword1", "Keyword2", "Keyword3"}

Naturally, you could modify this script to assign a project (I’ll leave that as an exercise for the reader), and you could use FastScripts to create an application-specific keyboard shortcut to run the script. This means that you can easily tag your messages with one keystroke, then file them away with another.

When used in conjunction with a good set of rules, I think these scripts can really make step #3 of the four-step mail processing pipeline a lot easier.

Of course, this is just how I work, and your own workflow might be very different. I encourage you, though, to examine your workflow and see if there are ways you could “reduce the friction.” I hope this post provides some ideas to help make that happen.

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One thing that I personally have found extremely helpful in making common tasks easier—a key aspect of the “reducing the friction” idea I’ve been discussing—is the use of keyboard shortcuts. In this post, I want to talk about how you might be able to maximize your use of keyboard shortcuts to help improve your personal efficiency.

In my view, there are three aspects to using keyboard shortcuts more extensively:

  1. Using a keyboard-based launcher/search tool
  2. Using a system-wide hotkey tool
  3. Using (and/or customizing) application-specific keyboard shortcuts

Let’s take a quick look at each of these.

Keyboard-Based Launcher/Search Tool

I don’t think it’s any secret that I’m a fan of Quicksilver, regarded by many to be the quintessential tool for OS X in this category. There are other tools in this category, of course; examples include LaunchBar and Alfred. The key value that all these tools add to an existing system is the ability to quickly and easily search for something or launch an application without having to take your hands off the keyboard. Most of these tools also take an “object-oriented” approach that lets you use them to open URLs, open documents or folders, perform web searches, access browser bookmarks, and more.

System-Wide Hotkey Tool

While tools such as Quicksilver (or LaunchBar or Alfred) have some of this functionality as well, I’m specifically thinking of a utility like FastScripts. FastScripts allow you to bind AppleScripts to keyboard shortcuts, either on a system-wide basis or on an application-specific basis. There are other tools similar to this, but this is one with which I am very familiar (I think Keyboard Maestro offers similar functionality, plus other features as well.)

Here are some potential ways you could use this tool to help reduce the friction:

  • Perhaps you want to be able to compose a new e-mail message from any application on your system. You could write an AppleScript that launches Mail.app and composes a new message, then use FastScripts to create a system-wide shortcut key. Now, in whatever application you’re in, you can quickly and easily bring up a window to send a new e-mail message—all without taking your hands off the keyboard or having to switch between applications.
  • Maybe you want to make it even easier to launch a particular application. You could write a very simple AppleScript that launches the application, then use FastScripts or its equivalent to create a system-wide hotkey to launch the app. (This sort of functionality is especially useful if you aren’t using a tool like Quicksilver, LaunchBar, or Alfred.)
  • Like with an application, an AppleScript to open a commonly-accessed folder is pretty simple. Think about being able to use a quick keyboard shortcut to access folders that you frequently use, without having to navigate through the folder structure or switch applications to get there. Handy!

Application-Specific Keyboard Shortcuts

There are two parts to this particular aspect of using keyboard shortcuts:

  1. Using something like FastScripts, but on an application-specific basis
  2. Using OS X’s System Preferences application to customize keyboard shortcuts more to your liking

Use case #1 I’ve kind of already described in the previous section, so I won’t go into it again. There are lots of potential use cases here—creating a keyboard shortcut for an AppleScript that archives the selected messages is one example that might help accelerate your e-mail processing workflow.

Use case #2 is a bit more interesting, I think. A little-known fact is that you can use System Preferences to create new keyboard shortcuts for specific features within applications as well as customize existing keyboard shortcuts. Here’s an example. In some of my applications, the Export command (for saving a file in a different format) used Option-Command-E, but in other applications it didn’t. Since keyboard shortcuts are a little like muscle memory, using the same keyboard shortcut across multiple applications makes it easier and simpler. So, I used System Preferences so that more of the applications I use regularly have the same keyboard shortcut (where possible) for the Export function.

I hope some of these ideas are useful, or that they spark new ideas you might have about how you might reduce the friction in your own workflows. I’d love to hear any ideas or suggestions that other people have, so please speak up in the comments below. Thanks!

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One of the key things you can do to help improve your efficiency is “reduce the friction”—make common tasks easier, simpler, faster. (This isn’t my phrase or idea, by the way, but I’ve forgotten exactly where I first saw it.) In my last Reducing the Friction post, I talked about how I use AppleScript to help automate part of my blog publishing process. In this post, I’ll share how I help automate some common file management tasks.

The tool that I use here is Hazel, a nifty rules-based file management tool. Hazel uses a set of “if-then” rules to automatically perform tasks on a file based on a set of conditions. I use Hazel for a number of things, but the primary use case I’ll highlight here is automatically archiving files. I use this same technique in two different ways:

  1. To automatically archive files I no longer need/want
  2. To automatically archive published blog posts

The basic rule is the same in both instances, although the trigger is different. Here’s a screenshot of the Hazel rule for the first usage, archiving files I no longer need/want:

Hazel rule screenshot

Hazel rule for archiving files

Let me break that down real quick:

  • The rule condition states that a file must have been assigned the blue color label in the Finder (which, in my system, is what I use to mark a file as no longer needed/wanted) in order for the rule to be fired.
  • Once the rule is fired, then Hazel will move the file to the Archive-Pending folder and clear the color label from the file.

So, to archive files to my Archive-Pending folder (which I periodically move off my laptop to my home NAS for longer-term storage), I simply assign it the blue color label and Hazel does the rest. By the way, you’ll note that this rule is attached to the ~/Documents folder.

I use the same basic rule, with one small tweak, for the second usage I listed (automatically archiving published blog posts):

Hazel rule screenshot

Hazel rule for archiving published blog posts

As you can see, the rule actions are the same (move the file to the Archive-Pending folder and clear the color label), but the trigger is different. In this particular case, I use the green color label, which I’ve named “Finished” in my Finder preferences, to trigger the rule action. This rule is attached to my Blog-Drafts folder.

So, when I’m done with a blog post, I mark the Markdown file with the Finished (green) label, and Hazel automatically moves the post to my Archive-Pending folder. This helps ensure that the Blog-Drafts folder only contains unpublished/in-progress drafts, and also helps ensure that I have an archive of all my blog posts (an archive that is separate from backups of the WordPress database). This second reason, by the way, is one of the reasons I use the publishing process I use instead of just using the WordPress editor (although that is a perfectly fine way of doing it, if that works for you).

So what’s next? Hazel has the ability to watch a file’s activity (based on last opened or last modified dates), so in theory I could have Hazel start automatically moving “old” or “inactive” files to the Archive-Pending folder as well. I’m a bit hesitant to do that right now, but it is an option I might explore in the future.

I’d love to hear any other thoughts readers might have on “reducing the friction” through automating parts of the file management process (either with Hazel or with other tools). Feel free to add your thoughts, ideas, or suggestions in the comments below.

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In some of the presentations that I give on productivity and efficiency, one of the things I mention is reducing the friction; that is, making processes more streamlined so they’re easier to perform. In this post, I’m going to describe one way I reduced the friction for producing and publishing blog posts using BBEdit, TextSoap, MarsEdit, and some AppleScript.

It’s no secret that I’ve become a huge fan of Markdown, the human-readable plain text “markup” format created by Jon Gruber. The vast majority of all my content is now created in Markdown, and then converted to RTF (to share with my Office-using co-workers), PDF (for broader publication), or HTML (for publishing online). Until very recently, my blog publishing process looked something like this:

  1. Write the blog post in Markdown, using TextMate.
  2. Using a built-in Markdown binary in TextMate, convert the Markdown into HTML.
  3. Run the raw HTML through TextSoap (very handy tool) to remove smart quotes and curly apostrophes.
  4. Paste the parsed HTML into MarsEdit for publication to my blog.

While it seems complicated, it wasn’t terribly complicated—but it wasn’t as seamless as it could be. So, I set out to improve the process. The first big change was a switch from TextMate to BBEdit, which is more extensible (and kept up to date by the developer). That change allowed me to do two things:

  • Switch from the built-in Markdown support in TextMate to using a separate (and more up-to-date) MultiMarkdown binary maintained by Fletcher Penny.
  • Introduce an AppleScript (BBEdit has outstanding support for AppleScript) to automate some portion of the process.

My first pass at automating the process just got me back to where I was before—writing Markdown in BBEdit, converting to HTML, cleaning the HTML with TextSoap, and pasting into MarsEdit. Not too impressive, but acceptable, and a process with which I was familiar. I stuck with that process for a while, primarily because it was a known entity. A couple of days ago, though, I asked myself: Can I do better? Can I be more efficient?

So, my second pass at automating the process is much more comprehensive. The AppleScript I wrote as a result of challenging myself to reduce the friction does the following:

  • Takes the Markdown from BBEdit and converts it to HTML.
  • Using the HTML produced by the standalone MultiMarkdown binary, it then calls TextSoap to (in the background) clean the HTML according to a custom cleaner I’d created (the custom cleaner, called “Replace HTML Entities,” just replaces curly quotes and curly apostrophes, which don’t translate well on my site).
  • Creates a new, blank blog post in MarsEdit, into which it pastes the cleaned HTML as the body of the post.

I store the script in BBEdit’s scripts folder, which means I can invoke the script easily from within BBEdit.

Here’s the AppleScript itself (click here if the script doesn’t show up):

Now, I can write my Markdown in BBEdit, invoke the script, and get dropped out to HTML code sitting in a new blog post in MarsEdit. All I need to do to publish the post at that point is supply the metadata (tags, categories, title, excerpt) and click Send to Blog. Done. (I used this process for this post, in fact.) How’s that for reduced friction?

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Shortly after I published Technology Short Take #27, a reader asked me on Twitter how I managed the information that goes into each Technology Short Take (TST) article. Although I’ve blogged about my productivity setup before, that post is now over two years old and horribly out of date. Given that I need to post a more current description of my tools and workflow, I thought I’d take a brief moment to answer the reader’s question. Here’s how I go about building the Technology Short Take articles.

I’ve mentioned before that I have three “layers” of tools: a consumption layer, an organization layer, and a creation layer. I’ll break down the process according to these layers.

The Consumption Layer

This is where I go about actually finding the content that gets pulled into a TST post. There’s nothing terribly unique here; I have a collection of RSS feeds which I subscribe and I get content from people I follow on Twitter. I will also visit various Usenet newsgroups and certain IRC channels (only on irc.freenode.net) from time to time.

If you’re interested in seeing the RSS feeds to which I subscribe, here’s an OPML list of all my subscriptions.

The majority of the content I consume is web-based, so when I find an article that I want to use in a TST post, I’ll save that as a Safari web archive. I wish there was a more platform-independent method, but as yet I haven’t found a good solution. Once I’ve saved a page for future use, then we move into the organization layer.

The Organization Layer

As content is discovered via any of the various consumption layer tools, I then need to get that content “sucked” into my primary organization layer tool. I use a really, really fancy tool—it’s called the file system.

When I save a web page that I’m planning on including in a TST article, I generally save it, by default, to the Desktop. I have a program named Hazel that watches the Desktop and Downloads folders for web archive files, and automatically moves them to a WebArchives folder. From there, I use a couple of saved Spotlight searches to identify newly-created web archives that don’t have a source URL or don’t have any OpenMeta tags assigned. For these newly-created web archives, I use the Spotlight comments field to store the source URL, and I use an application named Tagger to assign OpenMeta tags.

Once a web archive has its source URL and OpenMeta tags assigned, then I have a group of saved Spotlight searches the group files together by topic: virtualization, storage, OpenStack, Open vSwitch, etc. This makes it super easy for me to find web archives—or other files—related to a particular topic. All these saved searches are built on queries involving the OpenMeta tags.

Content will remain here until either a) I use it in a TST article and no longer need it; or b) I use it in a TST article but feel it’s worth keeping for future reference. I might keep content for quite a long time before I use it. Case in point: the Q-tools stuff from Dave Gray that eventually found its way into some of my VMUG presentations was something I found in 2009 (it was published in 2008).

The Creation Layer

After collecting content for a while, a scheduled, recurring OmniFocus action pops up reminding me to write the next TST post. At this point, I go back to my organization layer tools (saved Spotlight searches and content folders) to pull out the various pieces of information that I want to include. I write the post in Markdown using TextMate, building off a skeleton template that has all the content headers already in place.

Using the saved searches I described above, I’ll search through my content to see what I want to include in the TST post. When an item is included in a TST blog post, I’ll write my thoughts about the article or post, then grab the source URL from the Spotlight comments to make a hyperlink to the content. If the content is useful and informative, I might keep it around; otherwise, I’ll generally delete the saved web archive or bookmark file. I repeat this process, going through all my saved content, until I feel that the TST post is sufficiently full of content.

Then, because it’s all written in Markdown, I convert the post to HTML and actually publish it to the site using the excellent MarsEdit application. TextMate makes this incredibly easy with just a few keystrokes.

And that’s it! That’s the “mystery” behind the Technology Short Take articles. Feel free to post any questions or thoughts you have about my workflow and tools in the comments below. Courteous comments are always welcome.

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Today I had the opportunity to speak at the Midwest Regional/Kansas City VMUG User Conference in Overland Park, KS. Below is the presentation I delivered, as hosted by SpeakerDeck.

If you’d like a PDF version of the deck for direct download, it is available here.

As always, courteous comments are both welcomed and encouraged! Feel free to speak up below.

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I tweeted earlier today that I managed to achieve “Inbox Zero” (an empty e-mail inbox) while at a major industry conference (I’m in Spain for VMworld EMEA). A follower on Twitter asked if I would share my “inbox secret”. It’s not a secret, really, but I thought I’d share it here just in case others are interested in trying to emulate a similar methodology (or are just interested in getting control of your e-mail inbox).

First, you’ll need some infrastructure:

  • Get yourself some sort of “to do” system. I don’t care if you use Getting Things Done (GTD), or just make notes in a plain text file—but find a system and use it. I mean, really USE it. Be ruthless in putting your actions (tasks, “to do’s”) in the system. Personally, I use OmniFocus, but ultimately you’ll need to find the right tool that works for you.

  • Determine an archiving strategy. In other words, what are you going to do with e-mails that have information you might need later, but don’t represent something you need to do? There are a variety of strategies here; some people have a complex hierarchy of folders while others just dump all their messages into one big archival folder. Personally, I use a time-based approach—I archive messages I might need later into an annual folder. So, I have folders for 2012, 2011, 2010, etc., all the way back to 2004.

  • (Optional, but recommended) Find an automation tool. What do I mean by “an automation tool”? You’re looking for some sort of macro/scripting tool that can help streamline common tasks for you. Simply creating (or customizing) some keyboard shortcuts within your e-mail application might be sufficient. Personally, I use AppleScript and a tool called FastScripts to allow me to execute those scripts via application-specific or global keyboard shortcuts.

Once you’ve accomplished those three tasks, then we get to the actual work of managing your inbox. Here’s how it works. For every message that comes into your inbox, one of four things happens (this is your DECISION TREE):

  1. If the message represents something you can do and get done in just a few minutes (a quick reply or an action you can complete), do it and then delete or archive the message.
  2. If the message represents something that will take some additional time (a more lengthy reply or an action/series of actions that will take time to complete), create a task/”to do” entry in your system and then delete or archive the message.
  3. If the message represents something that is not an action but contains information you might need later, archive it.
  4. If the message doesn’t match any of the above rules, delete it.

It’s really a simple system, but it requires discipline. You have to school yourself not to use your inbox as a task/”to do” system—that’s why you find/use a system. And finding an automation tool (as I suggested) helping remove friction or resistance to the system by making it easier to archive messages or create task/”to do” actions. For example, using FastScripts, I have a single keyboard shortcut (Ctrl-Cmd-A) to archive a message to the current year’s archive folder. So, when I’m done with a message in my Inbox—after I’ve responded or created an action—I can archive it with a quick keyboard shortcut.

Hopefully some of this information helps. Feel free to speak up with additional tips, suggestions, or questions in the comments below.

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